### Problem

I'm trying to understand this with a view towards the etale fundamental group where we can't talk about loops. What I'm missing is how the fundamental group functor should work on morphisms, without mentioning loops.

### Naive attempt

Let's say we have a map $X \rightarrow Y$ (of topological spaces, schemes, what have you). Let's say $\tilde Y$ is $Y$'s universal cover (in the case of schemes, this only exists as a pro-object, and only in some cases, but for simplicity assume it exists) and $\tilde X$ is $X$'s fundamental group.

My first, naive, approach was the following: take $X \times_Y \tilde Y$. This is a cover of $X$ (etale is invariant to base change. Again $\tilde Y$ isn't *really* etale over $Y$ because it's not finite, but once we have the topological case down, ironing out the arithmetic details should be easy). So we have a map $\tilde X$ to $X \times_Y \tilde Y$.

Now, since $\tilde Y$ to $Y$ was Galois (- normal for the topologists; with group of deck transformations $\pi_1(Y, y)$) then so is $X \times_Y \tilde Y$ over $X$. With what group? It seems (and correct me if I'm wrong) that this will always be some quotient of $\pi_1(Y,y)$ (meaning that the group action of $\pi_1(Y,y)$ on $X \times_Y \tilde Y$ as a map $\pi_1(Y,y) \times X \times_Y \tilde Y \rightarrow (X \times_Y \tilde Y) \times_X (X \times_Y \tilde Y)$ is surjective but not nec. an immersion).

Since $\tilde X$ maps to $X \times_Y \tilde Y$, we get a natural map $\pi_1(X,x) \twoheadrightarrow Aut_X(X \times_Y \tilde Y)$, where, as we said, $Aut_X(X \times_Y \tilde Y)$ is a quotient of $\pi_1(Y,y)$.

This is not going to work. What is the right definition of how the fundamental group functor acts on morphisms, via a deck-transformations approach?

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