Now, among algebraic geometers, at least, it is well known that there is an equivalence between locally free $\mathcal{O}_X$-modules of rank $n$ and vector bundles of rank $n$. So, equivalently, principal $\mathrm{GL}(n,\mathbb{C})$-bundles are given by locally free sheaves of rank $n$.

So...what about other groups? I guess that $\mathrm{SL}(n,\mathbb{C})$ bundles are then locally free sheaves of rank $n$ with top exterior power trivial, but can we phrase everything in terms of the properties of a sheaf and a group?

My guess is that in this context, if we can do it, we'll end up with something that's not quite locally free sheaves of rank n for $\mathrm{GL}(n,\mathbb{C})$, but which will be equivalent.

** Note**: I'm aware that we could just say something like "the sheaf of local sections of a $G$-bundle" but I'm looking for something intrinsic, a set of properties of the sheaf without reference to the geometric bundle, which can be reconstructed from the sheaf description.