# Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev inequality in Lorentz spaces

Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev inequality states that if $1<p<q<\infty$, $1/r=1-1/p+1/q$, then we have $$\left\|\frac{1}{|x|^{n/r}}\ast f\right\|_{L^q(\mathbb R^n)}\le\|f\|_{L^p(\mathbb R^n).}$$

Note that here $q=\infty$ is not allowed. My question is, is it possible to get some bounds for $q=\infty$, if we weaken the RHS norm to be in Lorentz space $L^{p,1}$:

$$\left\|\frac{1}{|x|^{n/r}}\ast f\right\|_{L^q(\mathbb R^n)}\le\|f\|_{L^{p,1}(\mathbb R^n).}$$

• @Matt Thanks! It seems to me that R. O'Neil's paper also excludes the possibility for $q$ to be $\infty$, maybe it's not possible to have $q=\infty$ in this kind of bounds. – forevenone Mar 27 '16 at 2:16
• The $latex q=\infty$ case follows from the duality of $L^{p,1}$ and $L^{p',\infty}$. This is not difficult to prove, but I don't know of a precise reference (you could try Grafakos's text, perhaps). – Terry Tao Mar 28 '16 at 17:23
The Young inequality in Lorentz spaces covers these cases: if $p_1,p_2,p\in]1,\infty[$, $q_1,q_2,q\in[1,\infty]$, \begin{equation} \|f\ast g\|_{L^{p,q}}\leq C\|f\|_{L^{p_1,q_1}} \|g\|_{L^{p_2,q_2}},\qquad p_1^{-1}+p_2^{-1} =1+p^{-1},\ q_1^{-1}+q_2^{-1}\geq q^{-1}; \end{equation} and if $p_{1},p_2\in ]1,\infty[$, $q_1,q_2\in[1,\infty]$, then \begin{equation} \|f\ast g\|_{L^\infty}\leq C\|f\|_{L^{p_1,q_1}} \|g\|_{L^{p_2,q_2}},\qquad p_1^{-1}+p_2^{-1} =1,\ q_1^{-1}+q_2^{-1}\geq1. \end{equation} Note that the second inequality contains your estimate.
The oldest reference I know for this is a paper by R.O'Neil, Convolution operators and $L(p,q)$ spaces, Duke Math. J. 30 (1963), 129-142.