(Migrated by request from the comments.)
Bruhn and Schaud's (2013) The journey of the union-closed sets conjecture provides a rather readable write-up. Particularly relevant is the section Obstacles to a proof; for example, you may check just after Conjecture 15 in which the authors ask (essentially) your question here:
"So, why then has the conjecture withstood more than twenty years of proof attempts?" (p. 14)
Bruhn and Schaud then list three possible techniques of proof, and go into a bit of detail around why they do not seem to work out; these techniques are: injections, local configurations, and averaging.
The paper also provides a few relevant re-formulations using, e.g., lattices, (maximal stable sets of bipartite) graphs, and the "Salzborn" formulation (p. 12). In each case, a re-formulation of the Frankl (or union-closed sets) conjecture brings corresponding ideas and techniques with varying potential; the authors of this particular survey do well by their promise early on:
"The focus of this survey is on the methods employed to attack the conjecture. Our treatment of the literature is therefore somewhat uneven. Whenever we can identify a technique that, to our eyes, seems interesting and potentially powerful we discuss it in greater detail" (p. 3).