# An inequality for the minimal number of generators of a finite group

Let $G$ be a finite group, $n(G)$ the minimal number of generators and $m(G)$ the minimal number of irreducible complex representations generating (with $\otimes$ and $\oplus$) the left regular representation.

Notation: the word "generating" does not mean "generating exactly", but as a direct factor.

Question: Is it true that $n(G) \ge m(G)$ ?

Remark: a group $G$ is linearly primitive iff $m(G) = 1$, so it's obviouly true in this case.

• What about $S_n$? It is generated by two elements; but I think, the minimum number of generators of irreducible representations is more than $2$. – p Groups Jan 25 '16 at 15:35
• @pGroups: $S_n$ is linearly primitive because it is a primitive permutation group (see here), so $m(S_n) = 1$. – Sebastien Palcoux Jan 25 '16 at 15:47
• Is linearly primitive equivalent to the group having a faithful irreducible representation? Clearly if it has such a rep, it is linearly primitive (as any irreducible is a summand of a suitable power of it), but I am unsure of the other direction. – Tobias Kildetoft Jan 29 '16 at 12:08
• @TobiasKildetoft: my definition of linearly primitive is precisely the existence of a faithful irreducible complex representation. You are right, $G$ linearly primitive implies $m(G) = 1$. and the converse is true because if $m(G) = 1$ then the left regular representation $H = \mathbb{C}G$ is a direct factor of a combination (for $\otimes$ and $\oplus$) of one irreducible complex representation $V$. Now $H$ is faithful, so is $V$. – Sebastien Palcoux Jan 29 '16 at 12:18

## 1 Answer

Let $P$ be a $p$-group. Then the smallest number of irreducible characters of $P$ whose kernels intersect trivially is at least $n(Z(P))$, and thus $m(P) \ge n(Z(P))$. So to find an example where $n(P) < m(P)$, it suffices to find $P$ such that $n(P) < n(Z(P))$. An example in the Magma or GAP data base of small groups is SmallGroup($3^6$,9). Here, $n(P) = 2$ but $n(Z(P)) = 3$.

• Do you know if there are precise results on the smallest number of irred. char. of a p-group P whose kernels intersect trivially ? In particular, your lower bound n(Z(P)) is exact if P has cyclic center. – Todd Leason Feb 8 '16 at 1:12
• @ToddLeason: n(Z(P)) is exactly the minimum number of irreducible characters of a p-group P whose kernels intersect trivially. Choose that many linear characters of Z(P) whose kernels intersect trivially, and for each of them, choose one irreducible character of P lying over it. The kernels of these irreducible characters of P will have trivial intersection. – Marty Isaacs Feb 8 '16 at 4:19
• Why the smallest number of irreducible characters of $P$ whose kernels intersect trivially is at least $n(Z(P))$? (for $P$ a $p$-group) – Sebastien Palcoux Feb 10 '16 at 10:13
• @SebastienPalcoux Let E be the group of elements of order dividing p in Z(P). Then |E| = p^n, where n = n(Z(P)). Now if chi in Irr(G) has kernel K, then E/(E meet K) is cyclic, so has order at most p. Thus it requires at least n irreducible characters so that the intersection of their kernels meets E trivially. – Marty Isaacs Feb 10 '16 at 15:23
• @SebastienPalcoux If chi is an irreducible character of an arbitrary finite group, then Z(G/K) is cyclic. In my previous answer, E/(E meet K) is isomorphic to EK/K, and this is contained in Z(G/K) since E is central in G. – Marty Isaacs Feb 11 '16 at 4:17