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Forgive me for my ignorance, but I'm very surprised to learn that there are two Vinogradovs, both famous in the field of analytic number theory. Guessing from their names and the Russian naming convention, is one the son of the other?

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    $\begingroup$ The older Vinogradov was never married, and had no (official) children. Ivan is a common name in Russia (and it was even more common back then), so the naming convention does not imply anything here. $\endgroup$ Oct 31 '15 at 1:35
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    $\begingroup$ Here is a list of reknown people with last name Vinogradov from Russian wikipedia: ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/…. $\endgroup$ Oct 31 '15 at 1:48
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    $\begingroup$ I've never figured out Markov (Markoff). Markov processes seems to be a different person from Markov Numbers in number theory. Possibly related. $\endgroup$
    – Will Jagy
    Oct 31 '15 at 4:18
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    $\begingroup$ @WillJagy two Markovs you are talking about are the same person Andrei Andreevich Markov, though usually spelling differently (Markov processes, but Markoff triples). But please do not identify him with his son, constructive logician Andrei Andreevich Markov junior. $\endgroup$ Oct 31 '15 at 6:57
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    $\begingroup$ hsm.stackexchange.com ?? $\endgroup$ Oct 31 '15 at 10:28
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The answer seems to be no. It is hard to find direct confirmation, but every time their names are mentioned together it is made clear that there's no relationship.

The Russian mathematician Askold Ivanovich Vinogradov is not to be confused with the other Russian mathematician (the mathematical great-grandchild of Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev) whose work is at the heart of this paper: Ivan Matveyevich Vinogradov.

(Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society, issue 90)

There is a theorem due to Askold Ivanovich Vinogradov (1929-2005, not to be confused with another and more famous Russian mathematician, Ivan Matveevich Vinogradov, 1891-1988) that states...

Ian Hacking, Why Is There Philosophy of Mathematics At All?

In this obituary in the Russian Mathematical Surveys there's also no mention of him having children, let alone another somewhat famous soviet mathematician.

Ivan Matveyevich Vinogradov's Wikipedia article also mentions that he never married.

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