My question is rather philosophical : without using advanced tools as Perlman-Thurston's geometrisation, how can we get convinced that the class of closed oriented $3$-manifolds is large and that simple invariants as Betti number are not even close to classify ?

For example i would start with :

If $S_g$ is the closed oriented surface of genus $g$, the family $S_g \times S^1$ gives an infinite number of non pairwise homeomorphic $3$-manifolds.

Mapping tori of fiber $S_g$ gives as much as non-diffeomorphic $3$-manifolds as conjugacy classes in the mapping class group of $S_g$ which can be shown to be large using the symplectic representation for instance.

I think that I would like also say that Heegaard splittings give rise to a lot of different $3$-manifolds which are essentially different, but I don't know any way to do this.

So if you know a nice construction which would help understanding the combinatorial complexity of three manifolds, please share it :)

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