There does exist an elementary proof, and is given in many books on algebraic number theory. I think it is in Lang's book. I reproduce the proof below.

Consider $ \zeta _K(s)=\prod _{\mathfrak p}(1-\frac{1}{(N\mathfrak p)^{s}})^{-1}$ where $\mathfrak p$ runs over all prime ideals in the ring of integers in $K$. Therefore,

$$\log (\zeta _K(s))=\sum _{\mathfrak p}\sum _ {m\geq 1} \frac{1}{m(N\mathfrak p)^{ms}}$$

Since $\zeta _K(s)=\frac{1}{s-1}(a_0+a_1(s-1)+\cdots)$ with $a_0\neq 0$, it follows that $\frac{\log (\zeta _K(s))}{\log \frac{1}{s-1}}$ tends to $1$ as $s$ tends to $1$ from the right. On the other hand, in this limit, only the term $m=1$ and $\mathfrak p$ of degree one over $\mathbb Q$ need be considered. Hence we get
$$1= \lim _{s \rightarrow 1} \frac{\sum _{\mathfrak p} \frac{1}{(N\mathfrak p) ^s}}{\log \frac{1}{s-1}}.$$ Now, degree $1$ primes $\mathfrak p$ lie over rational primes $p$ which split completely in $K$, and over each $p$, there are $n=\deg(K/{\mathbb Q})$ primes $\mathfrak p$ of degree $1$. Hence we get

$$1=\lim _{s\rightarrow 1} n\left( \frac{\sum _p \frac{1}{p^s}}{\log \frac{1}{s-1}}\right)$$ where the sum is over primes $p$ which split completely. This gives what you want.