In a recent question, we learned about the existence of functions that do not satisfy any algebraic differential equation.

One nice property of such equations is that there is a good way to enumerate a basis: we can produce the stream of "monomials" $\left(\prod_i D^{\lambda_i-1}f(x)\right)_\lambda$, where $D$ is the differentiation operator and $\lambda=(\lambda_1,\lambda_2,\dots)$ runs over the integer partitions in lexicographic order: $$ 1, f(x), f(x)^2, f'(x), f(x)^3, f(x)f'(x), f''(x), f(x)^4, f(x)^2f'(x),\dots $$

I'm wondering: is there a "natural" class of equations, more general than ADEs, that has a similar basis. (Natural meaning: equations that specify many functions occurring in "nature")? Or, alternatively, just another class of equations.

I realise this is vague, please bear with me...

edit: I should add that I'm aware of "algebraic recurrences" (i.e., shift instead of differentiation) and "Mahler-type functional equations" (i.e., $f(x^{k+1})$ instead of $f(x)^{(k)}$).

Martin Klazar mentions that a few interesting sequences (eg. the ordinary generating function for Bell numbers) satisfy functional equations of the form $$p_1(x)f(x)=p_2(x)+p_3(x)f(\frac{x}{1-x}),$$ with polynomials p1, p2, p3 (and concludes that they are not differentially algebraic), but I'm not sure how common such equations are.

edit: the motivation for this question comes from the desire of being able to guess a formula (or recurrence, differential or functional equation) for a given sequence (of numbers or polynomials, etc.), as pioneered be GFUN, see also Section 7 in my preprint with Waldek Hebisch.

For example, given the first few (say 100) terms of the sequence, we compute it's (truncated) generating function $f_1 := f(x)$, and also $f_2 := f(x)^2, f_3 := f'(x), f_4 := f(x)^3, f_5 := f(x)f'(x), f_6 := f''(x), f_7 := f(x)^4, f_8 := f(x)^2f'(x), \dots$. We fix the maximal degree, say $N$ of the coefficient polynomials $p_1, p_2, \dots, p_m$, and then try to solve the linear system of equations obtained by equating coefficients in $$ ord(p_1 f_1 + \dots + p_m f_m)\geq\sigma $$ for large sigma. If we get a solution, and the given sequence is somehow naturally defined, chances are good that the equation holds for all terms of the sequence.