As mentioned in Terry Tao's comment to this question, it is constructively known

that there are primes between sufficiently large cubes. $\:$ According to wikipedia,

"there exists a constant $\: \theta < 1 \:$ such that $\;\;\; \pi \hspace{-0.03 in}\left(x\hspace{-0.04 in}+\hspace{-0.04 in}x^{\hspace{.02 in}\theta}\right)-\pi \hspace{.03 in}(x) \: \sim \: \dfrac{x^{\hspace{.02 in}\theta}}{\log(x)} \;\;\;$ as $x$ tends to infinity".

Is there any somewhat-similar corresponding effective result for the density of primes in short intervals?

Motivation:

Such a result could yield an effective randomized reduction from subset sum to this variant of factoring.