Yes. The task is to show that $X$ is a scheme (as then Lichtenbaum's result may be applied). By standard "spreading out" arguments, we may assume $S = {\rm{Spec}}(R)$ for a discrete valuation ring $R$, say with fraction field $K$, residue field $k$, and maximal ideal $\mathfrak{m}$. The special fiber $X_k$ is a scheme. Let $\{C_1, \dots, C_n\}$ be the irreducible components of $X_k$ (say with reduced structure).

Let $x_i \in C_i$ be a closed point, and let $U_i \rightarrow X$ be a residually trivial etale affine neighborhood of $x_i$ that is a scheme, so $U_i$ is a regular affine $R$-curve (i.e., flat finite type over $R$ with fibers of pure dimension 1). We may shrink $U_i$ so that its special fiber misses each $k$-finite $C_i \cap C_j$ for $i \ne j$, which is to say that $(U_i)_k$ lands in $C_i$. By going-down for flat morphisms, applied to $R \rightarrow O_{U_i,x_i}$, we can choose a closed point $u_i \in (U_i)_K$ whose closure in $U_i$ contains $x_i$. Thus, the image $\xi_i \in X_K$ is a closed point whose closure in $X$ contains $x_i$.

Since $X$ is regular of pure relative dimension 1 over $R$, the closure $D_i$ of $\xi_i$ in $X$ has *invertible* ideal sheaf $\mathscr{I}_{D_i}$. (Indeed, such invertibility may be checked on an etale scheme cover of $X$, where it becomes the fact that a height-1 prime in a regular domain in invertible, as regular local rings are UFD's.)

Let $\mathscr{L}$ denote the tensor product of the inverse sheaves $\mathscr{I}_{D_i}^{-1}$. Since each $D_i$ is $R$-flat, the formation of $\mathscr{L}$ commutes with base change on $R$, such as passage to the special fiber. By the theory of algebraic curves, $\mathscr{L}_k$ is thereby seen to be ample on $X_k$. Hence, for any coherent sheaf $\mathscr{F}$ on $X$, for all sufficiently large $m$ we have that $\mathscr{F} \otimes \mathscr{L}^m$ has vanishing degree-1 cohomology on $X_k$.

If $\mathscr{F}$ is $R$-flat and $\pi \in R$ is a uniformizer then we have a short exact sequence
$$0 \rightarrow \mathscr{F} \otimes \mathscr{L}^m \stackrel{\pi}{\rightarrow}
\mathscr{F} \otimes \mathscr{L}^m \rightarrow \mathscr{F}_k \otimes \mathscr{L}_k^m \rightarrow 0$$
whose associated cohomology sequence gives the vanishing of ${\rm{H}}^1(X, \mathscr{F} \otimes \mathscr{L}^m)=0$ for such large $m$ (due to Nakayama and $R$-finiteness of this H$^1$). Applying this with $\mathscr{F}$ equal to the ideal sheaf on $X$ of a (varying) closed point of $X_k$, we see that for some large $m_0$ the line bundle $\mathscr{L}^{m_0}$ is generated by global sections. By replacing $m_0$ with a big multiple, the formation of the $R$-finite (free) module of global sections commutes with reduction modulo $\mathfrak{m}$.

Now we get a natural $R$-map $f:X \rightarrow {\rm{Proj}}(\Gamma(R, \mathscr{L}^{m_0}))$ whose formation commutes with reduction modulo $\mathfrak{m}$,
and on the special fiber it is quasi-finite since $\mathscr{L}_k$ is ample on $X_k$ with $m_0$th-power generated by global sections. For any map of finite type between noetherian algebraic spaces, the quasi-finite locus is open on the source (as may be checked etale-locally, where it reduces to the known analogue for schemes), so the open quasi-finite locus $U \subset X$ of $f$ contains $X_k$. But $X$ is $R$-proper, so this forces $U=X$. Hence, $f$ exhibits $X$ as separated and quasi-finite over a scheme, so $X$ is a scheme (by a theorem of Knutson).

[The preceding is not optimal, since the conclusion that $X$ is a scheme, even quasi-projective, should be true with "proper" relaxed to "separated, flat, and finite type".