First, why all the coefficients in the characteristic polynomial of L are elliptic functions, since the diagonal entries of the matrix L are the momentums?

second, how to understand the ramification of the Spectral curve over the base elliptic curve? i.e, where are the branched points?


  • $\begingroup$ Could you provide some background and/or a brief introduction for the question? $\endgroup$ Mar 24, 2010 at 23:25

1 Answer 1


So, the Lax operator $L(\lambda)$ is given by $$L(t,\lambda)_{ij}=p_i \delta_{ij}+(1-\delta_{ij})f_{ij}\Phi(q_i-q_j,\lambda)$$ with lambda the spectral parameter, and $\Phi$ the Lamé function. Using the Lax equation $\dot{L}=[L,M]$, which is equivalent to $[L,\frac{\partial}{\partial t}+M]=0$, if a matrix $A(t,\lambda)$ satisfies $$\left(\frac{\partial}{\partial t}+M(t,\lambda)\right)A(t,\lambda)=0$$ and is normalized, $A(0,\lambda)=1$ it follows that $$L(t,\lambda)A(t,\lambda)=A(t,\lambda)L(0,\lambda)$$ Hence, it is clear that $\det(L-\mu I)$, (and so the spectral curve) is independent of time. Now, the equation of the spectral curve is $$\Gamma:\quad\det(L(t,\lambda)-\mu I)=0$$ Writing $$\Gamma(\lambda, \mu)\equiv\det(L(t,\lambda)-\mu I)=\sum_{i=0}^N r_i(\lambda)\mu^i$$ Your first question is why are the $r_i(\lambda)$'s elliptic functions. Note that the matrix elements of $L$ are already doubly periodic, but they have an essential singularity at $\lambda=0$. To show that the $r_i$'s are meromorphic, all you need is a gauge transformation to get rid of this singularity. Note that $$L(t,\lambda)=G(t,\lambda)\bar{L}(t,\lambda)G^{-1}(t,\lambda)$$ with $$G=\left(\delta_{ij}e^{\zeta(\lambda)q_i(t)}\right)_{1\le i,j\le N}$$ where $\zeta$ is the Weierstrass zeta function, does the job. So each $r_i(\lambda)$ will be a combination of the Weierstrass $\wp$ function and its derivatives, with the coefficients being integrals of the system. For each set of initial values of these integrals, the spectral curve is an $N$-sheeted covering of the base elliptic curve. The branch points will coincide with the zeros of $\frac{\partial \Gamma(\lambda,\mu)}{\partial \lambda}$ on $\Gamma$.

Look at "Introduction to classical integrable systems" by O. Babelon, D. Bernard, M. Talon, and the paper of Krichever I mention in the comments for more details.

  • $\begingroup$ Hi, Gjergji thanks! what i am not understanding, for example in case N=2, I have the explicit expression for spetral curve: k^2+k(p1+p2)+(p1*p2-\pi(q1-q2)+\pi(\numda)), where \pi is the weiestrass p function. p1 and p2 are the momentums. q1,q2 positions. so p1+p2 and p1*p2 are elliptic functions of the parameter? $\endgroup$
    – Jimmy
    Mar 24, 2010 at 22:09
  • $\begingroup$ So, yes this all agrees with the above. The $r_i$'s are representable as a linear combination of the Weierstrass p function with coefficients that are integrals of your system (independent of the spectral parameter). If you don't have access to the book I mentioned, try finding the paper "Elliptic solutions of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation and integrable systems of particles" by Krichever, section 1 addresses both your questions. $\endgroup$ Mar 25, 2010 at 1:57

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