There is an obvious map $i\colon S^n\to K(\mathbb{Z},n)$, with fibre $F$ say. The homotopy groups of $F$ are essentially the same as those of $S^n$. The mod $p$ cohomology of $K(\mathbb{Z},n)$ is polynomial tensor exterior, with a generator $u$ in degree $n$, and other generators obtained by applying Steenrod operations to $u$, which means they have dimension at least $n+2p-2$. Using this and the Serre spectral sequence we see that the mod $p$ cohomology of $F$ starts roughly in dimension $n+2p-2$, and it follows that the same is true of the $p$-torsion in the homotopy groups. A more careful argument along these lines gives the result stated in Wikipedia.