**Edit:** I have now removed the duplication previously referred to. Thank you.

Let $M$ and $N$ be smooth manifolds and $T: M \to N$ be a smooth map. Let $ \mathcal{F}(M,\mathbb{R})$ (resp.$ \mathcal{F}(N,\mathbb{R})$) denote the space of smooth functions from $M$ (resp. $N$) to $\mathbb{R}$ and let $F_T$ denote the pullback of $T$, i.e. the map $F_T: \mathcal{F}(N,\mathbb{R}) \to \mathcal{F}(M,\mathbb{R})$ defined by $F_T(f)= f \circ T$.

Is it possible to recover any properties or invariants of $T$ from $F_T$, such as the Dirichlet energy, winding number, etc.?

Thank you very much.