The condition (C) is stated bellow (but it is only a necessary condition). It does not look easy to check in practical cases.

First, some notations. If $a=(a_n)_{n\in\mathbb Z}$ is a sequence of complex number, then $\tau(a):=(a_{n+1})_{n\in\mathbb Z}$ denotes the shift sequence. If $P=\sum_{j=-N}^Nc_je^{2\pi ijx}$ ($P$ is a trigonometric polynomial), we define the operator $\widetilde P$ define on the sequences of complex numbers by $\widetilde P(a)=\sum_{j=-N}^Nc_j\tau^j(a)$.

Assume that $\mu\ll\nu$. Then there exists a non-negative function $f\in\mathbb L^1(\nu)$ such that for each measurable subset $A$ of $[0,1]$, $\mu(A)=\int_Af(x)\mathrm d\nu(x)$. Fix $\varepsilon\gt 0$. There is some non-negative simple function $g$ such that $\lVert f-g\rVert_{\mathbb L^1(\nu)}\lt\varepsilon$. For each measurable set involved in this simple function, approximate in $\mathbb L^1(\nu)$ its characteristic function by a continuous function. These continuous function may be approximated up to $\varepsilon$ by non-negative trigonometric polynomials. We thus conclude that
$$\tag{C}(\widehat{\mu}(n))_{n\in\mathbb Z}\in \overline{\{\widetilde{P}(\widehat{\nu}), P\mbox{ is a non negative trigonometric polynomial}\}}^{\ell^\infty}.$$