Please allow me, for the purposes of this question(but only here), to exaggerate matters and state two polemic definitions. Please forget these definitions after answering this question, and pardon my silly nitpicking.

Definition $1$: "Algebraic number theory" is the theory of algebraic numbers. We exclude arithmetic geometry and such.

Definition $2$: "Number theory" is the study of properties of natural numbers.

In the above sense, I seek examples of applications of algebraic number theory to number theory. I mean, those applications which throw light on "numbers" as we know them in primary school. There is of course enlightenment by looking at a bigger picture of so many number rings, but that is not what I mean. I have specifically the application to the down-to-earth integers in mind. What I know are the following:

$1$. The theorem that an odd prime is of the form $a^2 + b^2$ if and only if it is of the form $4n +1$, proved by looking at factorization in the Gaussian ring.

$2$. Pell's equation is solved with Dirichlet's unit theorem.

$3$. von Staudt–Clausen theorem on Bernoulli numbers, proved using cyclotomic theory.

$4$. Certain equations, like the Fermat equation $X^n + Y^n = Z^n$, may "split" in some extension field and thus it makes sense to go to bigger rings, to study diophantine equations. Here I mean the work of Kummer which started ideal theory, algebraic number theory, etc..

I exclude the following:

$5$. Arithmetic geometry can be used together with algebraic geometry, to study diophantine equations. Elliptic curves fall in here, when their geometry is used significantly(such as in the work of Katz-Mazur). That is "arithmetic geometry", for the purposes of this question. I am more interested in hearing about applications of "algebraic number theory", as defined above.

$6$. Again using algebraic geometry and also modular forms, conjectures such as the Ramanujan bound on the tau function can be proved. Here "modular forms" are "analytic", or "transcendental", and also "geometry is involved. So it goes beyond the "algebraic number theory"

$7$. Dirichlet's theorem on arithmetic progressions is "analytic number theory".

So I thus exclude any touch of "analytic number theory" and "arithmetic geometry", from "algebraic number theory" as defined above. But it can include Kummer theory, classfield theory, etc.. I do not know where to put in Dorian Goldfeld's results on the Gauss class number problem. It uses Gross-Zagier, which is significantly geometric, but gives a result expressible in terms of rational integers. Also I do not know whether Iwasawa theory is arithmetic geometry or not. Langlands theory etc., must be excluded, because it is even more abstract. I want only the "first course in algebraic number theory", "basic cyclotomic theory", "classfield theory" etc., in short only those things which are obviously the study of algebraic numbers.

So, question:

Are there other applications of "algebraic number theory" to "study of natural numbers", than the examples 1-4 above?

I tag this question "big-list" because I hope there are indeed quite a few.

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