I asked this question on math.stackexchange here, but it did not receive much attention. Thus, I was suggested to post it here.

Knuth, in The Art of Computer Programming Vol. 1, defines a replicative function as a function $f$ such that $$f(x)+f\left(x+\frac{1}{n}\right)+\cdots +f\left(x+\frac{n-1}{n}\right)=f(nx)$$ whenever $n\in\mathbf{Z}^{+}$. For $f(x)=\lfloor x\rfloor$, this is nothing but Hermite's identity. Knuth gives a few examples of replicative functions including the following.

- $f(x)=x-\frac{1}{2}$
- $f(x)=\begin{cases}1 && \text{if }x\in\mathbf{Z} \\ 0 && \text{otherwise}\end{cases}$
- $f(x)=\begin{cases}1 && \text{if }x\in\mathbf{Z}^{+} \\ 0 && \text{otherwise}\end{cases}$
- $f(x) = 1$ if there exists $r\in\mathbf{Q}$ and $m\in\mathbf{Z}$ such that $x=r\pi+m$, $f(x) = 0$ otherwise.
- The three other functions as above with $r$ and/or $m$ restricted to positive values.
- $f(x) = \log|2\sin(\pi x)|$, if the value $f(x)=-\infty$ is allowed.
- the sum of any two replicative functions.
- A constant multiple of a replicative functions.
- The function $g(x)=f(x-\lfloor x\rfloor)$, where $f$ is replicative.

Knuth then proposes to study the class of continuous replicative functions (the only one listed above is $f(x)=x-\frac{1}{2}$). However, as far as I can see, there seems to be a dearth of literature on this topic; the only piece I am aware of is here, but is not freely accessible.

Knuth also proposes to study the more general class of functions such that $$f(x)+f\left(x+\frac{1}{n}\right)+\cdots +f\left(x+\frac{n-1}{n}\right)=a_nf(nx)+b_n,$$ where $a_n$ and $b_n$ depend on $n$ but not $x$.

Is anyone aware of more information regarding this topic? Any help is greatly appreciated.