There have been several questions previously in this vein. This one asks for an advanced beginners book. The consensus seemed to be that it was difficult to find a one-size-fits-all text because people come in with such diverse backgrounds. Peter May's textbook A Concise Course in Algebraic Topology is probably the closest thing we've got. If you like that, then you can also read More concise algebraic topology by May and Ponto. I also recommend Davis and Kirk's Lecture Notes in Algebraic Topology. I think these would be a very reasonable place for a beginning grad student to start (assuming they'd already studied Allen Hatcher's book or something equivalent).
Another question asked for textbooks bridging the gap and got similar answers. Finally, there was a more specific question about a modern source for spectra and this has a host of useful answers. Again, Peter May and coauthors have written quite a bit on the subject, notably EKMM for S-modules, Mandell-May for Orthogonal Spectra, and MMSS for diagram spectra in general. Another great reference is Hovey-Shipley-Smith Symmetric Spectra. On the more modern side, there's Stefan Schwede's Symmetric Spectra Book Project. All these references contain phrasing in terms of model categories, which seem indispensible to modern homotopy theory. Good references are Hovey's book and Hirschhorn's book.
Since you mention that you're especially interested in $E_\infty$ ring spectra, let me also point out Peter May's survey article What precisely are $E_\infty$ ring spaces and $E_\infty$ ring spectra?