Out of idle curiosity, I'm wondering about all the various idempotent constructions we have in mathematics (they seem to be generally referred to as a "closure" or "completion"), and how some of them are related (e.g., the radical of an ideal and the closure of a subset of $k^n$ in the Zariski topology, via the Nullstellensatz - the radical and the topological closure both being idempotent).

So, one answer per post, but if you have two concepts which are related, I guess it'd be okay to put them together. For the sake of the completeness (ha ha) of this list, I'll add "radical" and "topological closure".

EDIT: My bad - I should have looked around more first. There's this list at Wikipedia and this list at nLab. Well, I'm sure there's plenty more concepts out there, so if you think of any more, feel free to add them. But let's focus on how some of these concepts are related - e.g., does one kind of completion arise in terms of another? What are some general ways in which completions and closures arise?