We are forced to use forcing for almost all "hard" independence results such as: $Con(ZFC)\longrightarrow Con (ZFC+\neg CH) $. The question simply is:

**Primary Question:** Is there any "forcing free" proof for $Con(ZFC)\longrightarrow Con (ZFC+\neg CH) $ or $Con(ZF)\longrightarrow Con (ZF+\neg AC) $ or any other "hard" independence results?

**Secondary Question:** Please list all "non simple" consistency results which have two proofs one by forcing and another without using it.

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