Hi,

I have a question regarding the universality property of the Riemann zeta-function. I am no expert on this, so I'd be glad for any relevant reference.

First, recall Voronin's remarkable theorem on the Universality of the Riemann zeta-function :

Let $K$ be a compact subset with connected complement lying in the strip $\{1/2 < \operatorname{Re}(z)<1\}$, and let $f : K \rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ be continuous, holomorphic on the interior of $K$, and zero-free on $K$. Then for each $\epsilon>0$, there exists $t>0$ such that $$\max_{z \in K} |\zeta(z+it)-f(z)|<\epsilon.$$ Even more : the lower density of the set of such $t$'s is positive..!

Note that of course, the hypothesis that the complement of $K$ is connected is essential in the above theorem.

My question is the following :

**Is there some sort of (modified) zeta-function universality-like result for compact sets $K$ with disconnected complements? For example, if $\mathbb{C}_\infty \setminus K$ has a finite number of components?**

**EDIT**

Of course I know that a sequence of the form $f_n(z):=\zeta(z+it_n)$ won't work in the case when the complement of $K$ is disconnected (such a sequence cannot approximate uniformly say $1/z$ on an annulus centered at $0$). I'm asking wether there is **some** sequence of functions, involving the Riemann zeta-function, that could work in this case, and generalize Voronin's Theorem. Note that such functions will necessarily have poles in each component of the complement of $K$.

**2nd EDIT**

Let me explain what I was looking for here. Basically, I'd like to know if there exists a result of the following form :

Let $K$ be a compact subset **whose complement has finitely many components** lying in the strip $\{1/2 < \operatorname{Re}(z)<1\}$, and let $f : K \rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ be continuous, holomorphic on the interior of $K$, and zero-free on $K$. Then for each $\epsilon>0$, there exists...

*Here insert some uniform approximation of $f$ on $K$ by a function involving the Riemann zeta-function*

Furthermore, in the case when $K$ has **connected** complement, I would like the above result to reduce to Voronin's Theorem.

In summary, I want to know if there exists a generalization of Voronin's Theorem to compact sets whose complement have finitely many components.

Thank you, Malik

rational functions. Of course, uniform approximation bypolynomialsis only possible in the "connected complement" case! I'll edit the question for more clarity. $\endgroup$3more comments