According to a well-known theorem of Mordell, the group of rational points $E(\mathbf{Q})$ of an elliptic curve $E/\mathbf{Q}$ is finitely generated. Weil generalized this theorem to abelian varieties over number fields.

Less well-known is the following generalization, due I believe to Néron : if $K$ is a field of finite type (that is, finitely generated over its prime field) and $A$ is an abelian variety over $K$, then $A(K)$ is finitely generated. There is an even more general statement, the Lang-Néron theorem, for relative field extensions which are finitely generated (see Brian Conrad's article for the precise statement and a proof of this theorem).

Q1. Are there other fields $K$ for which the group of $K$-rational points of an abelian variety over $K$ is always finitely generated?

In the other direction, there exist fields $K$ for which $A(K)$ is clearly never finitely generated whenever $\operatorname{dim}(A) \geq 1$. For example $K=\mathbf{C}$, in which case it follows from the description af abelian varieties as complex tori. If $K$ is a finite extension of $\mathbf{Q}_p$, then $A(K)$ contains a finite-index subgroup isomorphic to $\mathcal{O}_K^{\operatorname{dim} A}$, so $A(K)$ is again never finitely generated. Other examples I can think of are complete discretely valued fields and algebraically closed fields. Note that we often have the stronger result that $A(K) \otimes \mathbf{Q}$ is infinite-dimensional (except when $K=\overline{\mathbf{F}}_p$, in which case $A(K)$ is a torsion group).

Q2. Are there other fields $K$ for which the group of $K$-rational points of a non-trivial abelian variety over $K$ is never finitely generated?

not a finite extensionof ${\bf Q}_p$, it isnot completefor a discrete valuation, and it isnot algebraically closed). $\endgroup$4more comments