Let $M^{n-1}$ be a closed flat manifold. Is it true that there exists a hyperbolic manifold $N^n$ with finite volume such that $M$ is a cusp cross-section of $N$?

It was proved in "On the geometric boundaries of hyperbolic 4-manifolds" by Long and Reid in Geom. Topol. 4 (2000), 171–178 that there are 3-manifolds are not cusp cross-sections of any complete finite volume one-cusped hyperbolic 4-manifold, due to the obstructions of eta-invariant. They constructed a 3-dim flat manifold with eta invariant = -4/3. if it was the cusp of a hyperbolic manifold then it has to be integer according to Aatiyah-Patodi-Singer's theorem.

My question is can it always a cross-section of several-cusped hyperbolic 4-manifold?


Yes. Every (compact) flat $n$-manifold is diffeomorphic to a cusp cross section of a hyperbolic $(n+1)$-manifold. This is a theorem of McReynolds, Controlling manifold covers of orbifolds, Math. Res. Lett. 16 (2009), 651-662.

In your case, $n=3$, this is a theorem of Nimershiem. B. E. Nimershiem, All flat three-manifolds appear as cusps of hyperbolic four-manifolds, Topology Appl. 90 (1998), 109–133.


Since there are countably many finite-volume $3$-manifolds, and uncountably many flat tori, the answer is NO for $n=3,$ at least if your question is geometric, as opposed to topological.

  • $\begingroup$ What did you mean "uncountably many flat tori"? $\endgroup$
    – J. GE
    Aug 30 '12 at 21:08
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ GB: Igor meant "non-isometric"; however, your question, I think, was about flat manifolds regarded as topological manifolds. $\endgroup$
    – Misha
    Aug 30 '12 at 21:11
  • $\begingroup$ Misha, thanks for the clarification. $\endgroup$
    – J. GE
    Aug 30 '12 at 21:15

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