The problem of choosing subsets at random has been studied in a rather different context in mathematical economics. Suppose we choose a subset of $[0,1]$ by independently throwing a fair coin for each number. Heuristically, such a set should have measure $1/2$. For what we do is randomly choose an indicator function with pointwise expectation $1/2$. By some intuitive appeal to a law of large numbers, the sample realizations should have the same expectation. This kind of reasoning is widely used in economics. A large population is modeled by a continuum and even when each person faces individual uncertainty, there should be no aggregate uncertainty.

For the reason given by Will Sawin, the naive approach doesn't work quite well. For Lebesgue measure, some intuition comes from Lusin's theorem to the effect that every measurable function is continuous on a "large" subset. Continuity is a condition to the effect that the value at a point is closely related to the value at nearby points. If you choose independently at each value, you wouldn't expect to get a function continuous on a large set.

The general tradeoff between independence and measurable sample realizations is strongly expressed in the following result of Yeneng Sun:

**Proposition:** Let $(I,\mathcal{I},\mu)$ and $(X,\mathcal{X},\nu)$ be probability spaces with (complete) product probability space $(I\times X,\mathcal{I}\otimes\mathcal{X},\mu\otimes\nu)$ and $f$ be a jointly measurable function from $I\times X$ to $\mathbb{R}$ such that for $\mu\otimes\mu$-almost all $(i,j)$ the functions $f(i,\cdot)$ and $f(j,\cdot)$ are independent. Then for $\mu$-almost all $i$, the function $f(i,\cdot)$ is constant.

Note that the independence condition in this result is quite weak. Sun calls it *almost sure pairwise independence*. But an important discovery by Sun was that if joint measurability and almost sure pairwise independence were compatible, one could obtain an exact law of large numbers for a continuum of random variables by an application of Fubini's theorem. In particular, such a law of large numbers holds for extensions of the product spaces that allow for the conclusion of Fubini's theorem to hold and still allow for nontrivial (a.s. pairwise) independent processes. He called such extensions *rich Fubini extensions* and gave one example of such a product space: The Loeb product of two hyperfinite Loeb spaces. So one can get natural random sets for some spaces. The reference is: The exact law of large numbers via Fubini extension and characterization of insurable risks (2006)

A systematic study of rich Fubini extensions was done by Konrad Podczeck in the paper On existence of rich Fubini extensions (2010), in which he has essentially shown that one can choose random subsets of a probability space if and only if the probability space has the following property, which he called *super-atomlessnes* (and which is known by a lot of other names such as saturation):

For any subset $A$ with positive measure, the measure algebra of the trace on $A$ does not coincide with the measure algebra of a countably generated space.

Lebesgue measure on the unit interval does not satisfy this condition, but there exists extensions of Lebesgue measure that are superatomless.

**Conclusion:** One cannot obtain random Lebesgue measurable sets in a sensible way by choosing independently elements, but one can choose random sets in an extension of Lebesgue measure this way.

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