Edit: I don't have a reference, but I can sketch the proof. Suppose you have some polynomial equations that don't have a solution over ${\mathbb C}$. Extend ${\mathbb C}$ by a formal solution, and then algebraically close to get a field $K$. The field $K$ obviously contains a solution, but by model completeness of algebraically closed fields, a first-order statement is true in an algebraically closed field only if it is true in every algebraically closed field. The existence of a solution to a finite set of polynomial equations is a first-order statement and ${\mathbb C}$ is algebraically closed. QED.