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If $n$ is even, then the only group that can act freely and isometrically on $S^n$ is $\mathbb{Z}/2$. One way to see this is as in Max's answer above, i.e. by looking at the behavior of eingenvalues of orthogonal matrices. Here is another reason: an action of $G$ on $S^n$ means that there is a group homomorphism $G\rightarrow\mbox{Homeo}(S^n)$. But any homeomorphsim has degree $\pm 1$. So we get a homomorphism $G\rightarrow\mathbb{Z}/2$. But the action has no fixed points, then the degree of the image of every non trivial element in $G$ is $-1^{n+1}=1$, (-1)^{n+1}=-1$, therefore the map has a trivial kernel and therefore it is an isomorphism. As macbeth already pointed out, when$n$is odd, the problem is not so easy. In that case, we consider$S^n$as the universal cover of a complete Riemannian manifold$M$with constant sectional curvature. A simple argument using lifting properties of covering spaces shows that there is an isometry between$M$and$S^n/G$. S^n/G$ (whenever the action is free and properly discontinuous). So the problem of finding the subgrups with that particular action on the sphere is the same as the classification of complete Riemannian manifolds with constant sectional curvature (=1). That is done in Wolf's book Spaces of Constant Curvature.
If $n$ is even, then the only group that can act freely and isometrically on $S^n$ is $\mathbb{Z}/2$. One way to see this is as in Max's answer above, i.e. by looking at the behavior of eingenvalues of orthogonal matrices. Here is another reason: an action of $G$ on $S^n$ means that there is a group homomorphism $G\rightarrow\mbox{Homeo}(S^n)$. But any homeomorphsim has degree $\pm 1$. So we get a homomorphism $G\rightarrow\mathbb{Z}/2$. But the action has no fixed points, then the degree of the image of every element in $G$ is $-1^{n+1}=1$, therefore the map is an isomorphism.
As macbeth already pointed out, when $n$ is odd, the problem is not so easy. In that case, we consider $S^n$ as the universal cover of a complete Riemannian manifold $M$ with constant sectional curvature. A simple argument using lifting properties of covering spaces shows that there is an isometry between $M$ and $S^n/G$. So the problem of finding the subgrups with that particular action on the sphere is the same as the classification of complete Riemannian manifolds with constant sectional curvature (=1). That is done in Wolf's book Spaces of Constant Curvature.