There is a wonderful book by David Morin called "Introduction to Classical Mechanics". This book treats mechanics in a problems-oriented format; worked exercises dominate the book, making it very hands on. This was written for the honors freshman mechanics class at Harvard, and the math is simple but rich. It is basically a mix of differential equations and Euclidean geometry (and physics) and yet are problems there to challenge everybody. The book moves efficiently and he covers Lagrangians by Chapter 6. He explains the least action principle in a simple and natural way using only basic calculus.
In my opinion, you can learn quantum mechanics straight from a variety of sources, but it will seem unmotivated. Then again, Fenynman says "I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics."