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A subgroup of maximal rank of maximal dimension is certainly a maximal subgroup of maximal rank. Maximal connected subgroups of maximal rank in $Spin(n)$ correspond to maximal reductive Lie subalgebras of maximal rank in $so(n)_{\mathbf{C}}$. Such subalgebras in semisimple Lie algebras were classified by Dynkin in 1952, see Onishchik and Vinberg (Eds.), Lie Groups and Lie Algebras III, Encyclopaedia of Mathematical Sciences, vol. 41, Tables 5 and 6. For $so(n)$ all such subalgebras are $so(2k)\oplus so(n-2k)$, and also $gl(n/2)$ for $n$ even. The subalgebras of largest highest dimension are probably $so(n-1)$ for $n$ odd and $gl(n/2)$ for $n$ even.

EDIT: For $n=2l\ge 10$, the subalgebra of highest dimension and of maximal rank in $so(n)$ is $so(n-2)\oplus so(2)$ of dimension $2l^2-5l+4=l^2+l(l-5)+4$, and NOT $gl(n/2)$ of dimension $l^2$. For example, for $n=10$ we have ${\rm dim} (so(8)\oplus so(2))=29$, while ${\rm dim}\ gl(5)=25$.

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A subgroup of maximal rank of maximal dimension is certainly a maximal subgroup of maximal rank. Maximal connected subgroups of maximal rank in $Spin(n)$ correspond to maximal reductive Lie subalgebras of maximal rank in $so(n)_{\mathbf{C}}$. Such subalgebras in semisimple Lie algebras were classified by Dynkin in 1952, see Onishchik and Vinberg (Eds.), Lie Groups and Lie Algebras III, Encyclopaedia of Mathematical Sciences, vol. 41, Tables 5 and 6. For $so(n)$ all such subalgebras are $so(2k)\oplus so(n-2k)$, and also $gl(n/2)$ for $n$ even. The subalgebras of largest dimension are probably $so(n-1)$ for $n$ odd and $gl(n/2)$ for $n$ even.