As far as I know, there is no representation theory for the group $U(H)$, it is in a way "too big". However there is a rich representation theory for its subgroups admitting some kind of approximation by finite dimensional groups, in particular for the inductive limit group $U(\infty )$. For the latter, I quote the paper http://annals.math.princeton.edu/wp-content/uploads/annals-v161-n3-p05.pdf by Borodin and Olshanski:
"It is worth noting that the similarity of theories for the two groups $S(\infty )$ and $U(\infty )$ seems to be a striking phenomenon. In addition, as mentioned above, this can be traced in the geometric construction of the ‘natural’ representations and in probabilistic properties of the corresponding point processes. At present we cannot completely explain the nature of this parallelism (it looks quite different from the well-known classical connection between the representations of the groups S(n) and U(N))".
Thus, at the present state of this theory, the answer to your question seems negative.
EDIT. For the subgroup of unitary operators differing from $I$ by compact ones, the answer is positive. See the papers referred to in Todor Tsankov's answer.