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Apart from already mentioned non simply connected examples most simply connected manifolds are also not homogeneous. One easy criterion is that simply connected homogeneous spaces are rationally elliptic, i.e. they have finite dimensional total rational homotopy. That is because any connected Lie group is rationally homotopy equivalent to a product of odd dimensional spheres. so a homogeneous space is elliptic by a long exact homotopy sequence.

Most simply connected manifolds are not rationally elliptic. For example the connected sum of more than two $CP^2$'s or $S^2\times S^2$'s. This is easily seen by looking at their minimal models. But even without computing minimal models it's known that an elliptic manifold $M^n$ has nonnegative Euler characteristic and has the total sum of it's betti its Betti numbers $\le 2^n$. So anything that violates either of these conditions such as the connected sum of several $S^3\times S^3$'s is definitely not rationally elliptic and hence can not be a homogeneous space or even a biquotient.

As for higher genus surfaces it should not be hard to show that they can not be homogeneous spaces $G/H$ even if you don't assume that $G$ acts by isometries. If $G/H=S^2_g$ and the $G$ action is effective then for any proper normal $K\unlhd G$ which does not act transitively on $S^2_g$ we must have $K/(K\cap H)=S^1$. But then $G/K$ is also 1-dimensional and hence also a circle which is obviously impossible. This reduces the situation to the case of $G$ being simple which can also be easily ruled out for topological reasons.

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Apart from already mentioned non simply connected examples most simply connected manifolds are also not homogeneous. One easy criterion is that simply connected homogeneous spaces are rationally elliptic, i.e. they have finite dimensional total rational homotopy. That is because any connected Lie group is rationally homotopy equivalent to a product of odd dimensional spheres. so a homogeneous space is elliptic by a long exact homotopy sequence.

Most simply connected manifolds are not rationally elliptic. For example the connected sum of more than two $CP^2$'s or $S^2\times S^2$'s. This is easily seen by looking at their minimal models. But even without computing minimal models it's known that an elliptic manifold $M^n$ has nonnegative Euler characteristic and has the total sum of it's betti numbers $\le 2^n$. So anything that violates either of this these conditions such as a the connected sum of several $S^3\times S^3$'s is definitely not rationally elliptic and hence can not be a homogeneous space or even a biquotient.

As for higher genus surfaces it should not be hard to show that they can not be homogeneous spaces $G/H$ even if you don't assume that $G$ acts by isometries. If $G/H=S^2_g$ and the $G$ action is effective then for any proper normal $K\unlhd G$ which does not act transitively on $S^2_g$ we must have $K/(K\cap H)=S^1$. But then $G/K$ is also 1-dimensional and hence also a circle which is obviously impossible. This reduces the situation to the case of $G$ being simple which can also be easily ruled out for topological reasons.

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Apart from already mentioned non simply connected examples most simply connected manifolds are also not homogeneous. One easy criterion is that simply connected homogeneous spaces are rationally elliptic, i.e. they have finite dimensional total rational homotopy. That is because any connected Lie group is rationally homotopy equivalent to a product of odd dimensional spheres. so a homogeneous space is elliptic by a long exact homotopy sequence.

Most simply connected manifolds are not rationally elliptic. For example the connected sum of more than two $CP^2$'s or $S^2\times S^2$'s. This is easily seen by looking at their minimal models. But even without computing minimal models it's known that an elliptic manifold $M^n$ has nonnegative Euler characteristic and has the total sum of it's betti numbers $\le 2^n$. So anything that violates either of this conditions such as a connected sum of several $S^3\times S^3$'s is definitely not rationally elliptic and hence can not be a homogeneous space or even a biquotient.

As for higher genus surfaces it should not be hard to show that they can not be homogeneous spaces $G/H$ even if you don't assume that $G$ acts by isometries. If $G/H=S^2_g$ and the $G$ action is effective then for any proper normal $K\unlhd G$ which does not act transitively on $S^2_g$ we must have $K/(K\cap H)=S^1$. But then $G/K$ is also 1-dimensional and hence also a circle which is obviously impossible. This reduces the situation to the case of $G$ being simple which can also be easily ruled out for topological reasons.