Seeing the struggle of many students with standard trigonometry, I especially like the rational parametrization of $x^2+y^2=1$ (which is equivalent to listing all Pythagorean triples) by starting from $\sin^2\phi+\cos^2\phi=1$ and then using $$\sin\phi=\frac{2t}{1+t^2}, \quad \cos\phi=\frac{1-t^2}{1+t^2}, \qquad t=\tan\frac{\phi}2.$$ Note that the formulas are usually used in the context of integration of rational expressions in sine and cosine.
At the same time, a more general "geometric" argument (applicable to general quadratics), due to Bachet (1620), is still at school level. Namely, fix a single rational point on the curve, $(x _ 0,y _ 0)$ say, and consider the intersection points of the curve and straight lines $y-y_0=t(x-x_0)$ with rational slope $t$ passing through the point.