Yes, both are true. For example, see Theorem 1.6 of Chapter 11 of Cassels's "Rational Quadratic Forms", which says that if $Q$ is a positive definite integral quadratic form, then there is an integer $N$ depending on $Q$ such that if $a > N$ and $a$ is represented primitively by $f$ over all $\mathbb{Z}_p$ then $a$ is represented by $Q$. The local primitive representability is easy to show using the fact that $f$ is unimodular, and the classification of forms over $\mathbb{Z}_p$ by invariants.
For instance, if $p$ is odd and $p \nmid a$, then $f$ is equivalent over $\mathbb{Z}_p$ to $(a, a \det(f), 1, 1, \dots, 1)$, which obviously represents $a$ primitively. If $p | a$ you could use $((a-1), (a-1) \det(f), 1, 1, \dots, 1)$ which represents $a$ primitively. I won't do the analysis for $p = 2$, but see section 4 of chapter $8$ of Cassels.
Yes, both are true. For example, see Theorem 1.6 of Chapter 11 of Cassels's "Rational Quadratic Forms", which says that if $Q$ is a positive definite integral quadratic form, then there is an integer $N$ depending on $Q$ such that if $a > N$ and $a$ is represented primitively by $f$ over all $\mathbb{Z}_p$ then $a$ is represented by $Q$. The local primitive representability is easy to show using the fact that $f$ is unimodular, and the classification of forms over $\mathbb{Z}_p$ by invariants.