MathOverflow will be down for maintenance for approximately 3 hours, starting Monday evening (06/24/2013) at approximately 9:00 PM Eastern time (UTC-4).

2 Added "w.r.t. $x \leftrightarrow 1/x$" to explain "by symmetry"

Another example, like JSE's, that comes already equipped with a Belyi map but is not as familiar as modular curves and Fermat curves: For any relatively prime integers $m,n$ with $0<m<n$, and any subgroup $G$ of $S_n$, the curve that parametrizes trinomials $x^n + a x^m + b$ up to scaling with Galois group contained in $G$. The Belyi map is the invariant $a^n/b^{n-m}$ of the trinomial, and its degree is $d=[S_n:G]$; it is branched at $0$, $\infty$, and $(-n)^n/(m^m (n-m)^{n-m})$. By symmetry one One may assume $m \leq n/2$ (by symmetry with respect to $x \leftrightarrow 1/x$, $m \leftrightarrow n-m$). Some nontrivial examples with $n=5,7,8$ are given explicitly at http://www.math.harvard.edu/~elkies/trinomial.html; the subsequent paper with N.Bruin on the cases $(m,n) = (1,7)$ and $(1,8)$ with $d = 30$ is

Nils Bruin and Noam D. Elkies, Trinomials $ax^7+bx+c$ and $ax^8+bx+c$ with Galois Groups of Order 168 and $8 \cdot 168$, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2369 (proceedings of ANTS-5, 2002; C.Fieker and D.R.Kohel, eds.), 172-188.

(These examples all have $G$ transitive, but the construction works for all subgroups $G$.)

1

Another example, like JSE's, that comes already equipped with a Belyi map but is not as familiar as modular curves and Fermat curves: For any relatively prime integers $m,n$ with $0<m<n$, and any subgroup $G$ of $S_n$, the curve that parametrizes trinomials $x^n + a x^m + b$ up to scaling with Galois group contained in $G$. The Belyi map is the invariant $a^n/b^{n-m}$ of the trinomial, and its degree is $d=[S_n:G]$; it is branched at $0$, $\infty$, and $(-n)^n/(m^m (n-m)^{n-m})$. By symmetry one may assume $m \leq n/2$. Some nontrivial examples with $n=5,7,8$ are given explicitly at http://www.math.harvard.edu/~elkies/trinomial.html; the subsequent paper with N.Bruin on the cases $(m,n) = (1,7)$ and $(1,8)$ with $d = 30$ is

Nils Bruin and Noam D. Elkies, Trinomials $ax^7+bx+c$ and $ax^8+bx+c$ with Galois Groups of Order 168 and $8 \cdot 168$, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2369 (proceedings of ANTS-5, 2002; C.Fieker and D.R.Kohel, eds.), 172-188.

(These examples all have $G$ transitive, but the construction works for all subgroups $G$.)