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Infinite exponent partition relations are inconsistent with the axiom of choice, so in ZFC, this phenomenon does not exist, but nevertheless, in the context of $ZF+\neg AC$ there is a robust theory. See for example Andres Caicedo's discussion, this Kleinberg article, and the items in this Google search.

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Infinite exponent partition relations are inconsistent with the axiom of choice, so in ZFC, this phenomenon does not exist, but nevertheless, in the context of $ZF+\neg AC$ there is a robust theory. See for example this article, and the items in this Google search.