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# Multiple ergodic theoremaverages with varying number of terms

Hi. I've been stuck on the following question for some time.

Consider a sequence of functions $\left( f_n \right)$ from an ergodic space $\left( \mathsf{X}, \mathsf{S}, \mu \right)$ to $\left[ 0,1 \right]$ such that $f_{a+b} \leq f_a \mathsf{S}^a \left( f_b \right)$ for all integers $a, b \geq 0$, where, classically, $\mathsf{S} \left( g \right)$ is the map $x \longmapsto g \left( \mathsf{S} \left( x \right) \right)$.

Obviously $f_n \leq f_{n+1}$ so that the sequence $\left( f_n \right)$ decreases at each point to a function $f$. Under the hypothesis $\int_{\mathsf{X}} f_1 d\mu < 1$ I was able to prove that $f = 0$ almost everywhere. Here's how I dealt with the problem:

For fixed $n$ and integers $k$ and $\alpha$ such that $k \alpha \leq n$, the inequality $$f_n \leq f_1 \mathsf{S}^k \left( f_1 \right) \ldots \mathsf{S}^{k\alpha} \left( f_1 \right)$$ holds, so that, taking averages, one gets $$f_n \leq \frac{1}{\lfloor n/ \alpha \rfloor} \sum_{k=0}^{\lfloor n/ \alpha \rfloor} f_1 \mathsf{S}^k \left( f_1 \right) \ldots \mathsf{S}^{k\alpha} \left( f_1 \right)$$ Taking integrals, and using the dominated convergence theorem and the Furstenberg-Katznelson theorem on multiple ergodic averages, one gets \int_{\mathsf{X}} f \leq lim_{n \longrightarrow \infty} \frac{1}{\lfloor n/ \alpha \rfloor} \sum_{k=0}^{\lfloor n/ \alpha \rfloor} \int_{\mathsf{X}} f_1 \mathsf{S}^k \left( f_1 \right) \ldots \mathsf{S}^{k\alpha} \left( f_1 \right) = \left( \int_{\mathsf{X}} f_1 \right)^\alpha For all integers $\alpha$, which allows me to conclude.

Now the question is: does the series $\sum f_n$ converge? That seems plausible considering the seemingly exponential decreasing of $f_n$ to $f$, but trying to use the same techniques leads to multiple ergodic averages for a varying number of terms - making the integer $\alpha$ dependent on $n$ that is; is there any way to deal with those? All suggestions are welcome.

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# Multiple ergodic theorem with varying number of terms

Hi. I've been stuck on the following question for some time.

Consider a sequence of functions $\left( f_n \right)$ from an ergodic space $\left( \mathsf{X}, \mathsf{S}, \mu \right)$ to $\left[ 0,1 \right]$ such that $f_{a+b} \leq f_a \mathsf{S}^a \left( f_b \right)$ for all integers $a, b \geq 0$, where, classically, $\mathsf{S} \left( g \right)$ is the map $x \longmapsto g \left( \mathsf{S} \left( x \right) \right)$.

Obviously $f_n \leq f_{n+1}$ so that the sequence $\left( f_n \right)$ decreases at each point to a function $f$. Under the hypothesis $\int_{\mathsf{X}} f_1 d\mu < 1$ I was able to prove that $f = 0$ almost everywhere. Here's how I dealt with the problem:

For fixed $n$ and integers $k$ and $\alpha$ such that $k \alpha \leq n$, the inequality $$f_n \leq f_1 \mathsf{S}^k \left( f_1 \right) \ldots \mathsf{S}^{k\alpha} \left( f_1 \right)$$ holds, so that, taking averages, one gets $$f_n \leq \frac{1}{\lfloor n/ \alpha \rfloor} \sum_{k=0}^{\lfloor n/ \alpha \rfloor} f_1 \mathsf{S}^k \left( f_1 \right) \ldots \mathsf{S}^{k\alpha} \left( f_1 \right)$$ Taking integrals, and using the dominated convergence theorem and the Furstenberg-Katznelson theorem on multiple ergodic averages, one gets $$\int_{\mathsf{X}} f \leq lim_{n \longrightarrow \infty} \frac{1}{\lfloor n/ \alpha \rfloor} \sum_{k=0}^{\lfloor n/ \alpha \rfloor} f_1 \mathsf{S}^k \left( f_1 \right) \ldots \mathsf{S}^{k\alpha} \left( f_1 \right) = \left( \int_{\mathsf{X}} f_1 \right)^\alpha$$ For all integers $\alpha$, which allows me to conclude.

Now the question is: does the series $\sum f_n$ converge? That seems plausible considering the seemingly exponential decreasing of $f_n$ to $f$, but trying to use the same techniques leads to multiple ergodic averages for a varying number of terms - making the integer $\alpha$ dependent on $n$ that is; is there any way to deal with those? All suggestions are welcome.