Weil's conjecture (proved by Grothendieck) that the number of points of an algebraic variety over finite fields is dictated by the topology of the same algebraic variety over ${\mathbb C}$ (more precisely its Betti numbers).
Baez-Duarte's criterium: If $1$ is in the closure of the subspace of $L^2([1,+\infty[,\frac{dt}{t^2})$ spanned by the {$\frac{t}{n}$} (fractional part), for $n\geq 1$, then Riemann Hypothesis holds.