For a straightforward and quick intro to the standard model, try "Groups and Symmetries: From Finite Groups to Lie Groups" by Kosmann-Schwarzbach. It's rigorous and does a good job motivating the standard model in its later chapters. You'll learn what a quark is from the mathematical point of view.
In addition, Griffith's textbook on elementary particle physics would be a good historical supplement. It took physicists many years and guesses to work out the standard model. The first few chapter of Griffith's book read like a good mystery novel. Plus, you'll be a little more familiar with weird concepts like isospin, strangeness and color.
Finally, for more talk related to particle physics the classic text "Quarks and Leptons" by Halzen and Martin is really in-depth, but does assume a good grasp on physics. It does a good job of explaining concepts in the context of group theory. I would say, try to read the discussions in it rather then get bogged down in the physics.