A. This is really just an aspect of Mike Shulman's answer, but could be of some use in particular cases.
There's a 2-categorical limit called the power (or cotensor) of an object $B$ by the arrow-category $2$. This is an object $B^2$ with the property that morphisms from $A$ to $B^2$ are in bijection with pairs of morphism from A to B with a 2-cell between them. For example if B is a category then $B^2$ is the functor category $[2,B]$. If $B$ is a monoidal category then $B^2$ is $[2,B]$ with the evident (pointwise) monoidal structure.
In each of your examples, and more generally in Mike's setting, this limit exists in the structured 2-category, and is preserved by the forgetful 2-functor into Cat. Normally you would prove this given the definition of 2-cell. But you can also turn this around. Given a structure on B, if you know how to make $B^2$ into a structured object, then you can use this to define the structured 2-cells.
In examples where the structure is given by a 2-monad, and in particular in examples which involve structure described by operations $B^n\to B$, natural transformations between these, and equations, then you can always do this in a "pointwise way". (But if you choose a strange way to make $B^2$ into a structured object you will get a strange notion of 2-cell.)
Suppose, for example, that $B$ is a monoidal category. Once you agree to make $[2,B]$ monoidal in the pointwise way, then you can define a monoidal transformation to be a monoidal functor with codomain $[2,B]$, and this will agree with the standard definition which you referred to.
In the case of a cocomplete category $B$, you don't need to choose how to make $[2,B]$ cocomplete, it just is. And then you can consider cocontinuous functors with codomain $[2,B]$; once again this will give no extra condition to be satisfied by a natural transformation between cocontinuous functors
The case of symmetric monoidal categories can be treated in the same way.
B. Regarding the case of symmetric monoidal categories, there is a general phenomenon here. As you add structure to your objects in the form of operations $B^n\to B$ (like a tensor product) you generally introduce preservation conditions on both morphisms and 2-cells (although there are special cases, as in your Example 2, where the 2-cell part is automatic). But if you introduce structure in the form of natural transformations between the operations $B^n\to B$ (such as a symmetry), this results in new preservation conditions for the morphisms but not for the 2-cells.
C. Despite all this, there can be more than one choice for the 2-cells. The general principles described by Mike (and by me) would suggest that if our structure is categories with pullback, so that our morphisms are pullback-preserving functors, the 2-cells should be all natural transformations between these. But sometimes it's good to consider only those natural transformations for which the naturality squares are pullbacks. (These are sometimes called cartesian natural transformations.) See this paper for example.