Tonny Springer developed a subtle correspondence between Weyl group representations (say over $\mathbb{C}$) and nilpotent orbits of the related semisimple Lie algebra, showing in particular how to realize the finite group representations in the top cohomology of fibers in his special desingularization of the nilpotent variety. By now the ideas involved have permeated much of the work in Lie theory due to Lusztig and many other people. But there is no systematic treatise on the subject and its connections with other areas of Lie theory, algebraic geometry, combinatorics. In my 1995 book Conjugacy Classes in Semisimple Algebraic Groups I included toward the end a very short survey of Springer theory, following a treatment of the unipotent and nilpotent varieties. But I realized at the time that I didn't understand the subject deeply enough to write a comprehensive account. (I still don't.)