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One well-known trick is a way to evaluate the Gaussian integral $G = \int_\mathbb{R} e^{-x^2}dx = \sqrt{\pi}$ by writing $$G^2 = \left(\int_\mathbb{R} e^{-x^2}dx\right)\left(\int_\mathbb{R} e^{-y^2}dy\right) = \int_{\mathbb{R}^2} e^{-(x^2+y^2)}dxdy$$ which when transformed to polar coordinates becomes $$G^2 = 2\pi \int_0^\infty e^{-r^2} r dr = \pi \int_0^\infty e^{-u} du = \pi$$ via the substitution $u=r^2$. It appears this idea is due to Poisson.
Theorem. Any Riemann-integrable function $f$ on $\mathbb{R}$, such that $f(x)f(y) = g(\sqrt{x^2+y^2})$ for some $g$, is of the form $f(x)=ke^{ax^2}$.