One can decorate a subscript or superscript by additional symbols to indicate what the subscript or superscript is doing. For instance, consider a truncation $f 1_{|f| \leq N}$ of a function to its values whose magnitude is at most $N$. One could of course call such a function something like $f_N$, but why not call it $f_{\leq N}$ instead? Then one can do things like "Decompose $f = f_{\leq N} + f_{>N}$, where $f_{\leq N} := f 1_{|f| \leq N}$ and $f_{>N} := f 1_{|f| > N}$." Notation of this type is sometimes used in PDE, particularly with regard to Littlewood-Paley frequency projections.
Similarly, one could imagine the operation of shifting $f$ by $N$ to be denoted something like $f_{+N}$ rather than $f_N$, etc..