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Instead of $[X]$ one often sees $\mathbf 1_{X}$ (especially in probability work?). This is neat because it literally is 1 on $X$. Also it has the advantage over $[X]$ that you can write things like $(2+\mathbf 1_{X})^2$ for the function that is $9$ when $X$ occurs and $4$ otherwise; $(2+[X])^2$ would be less appealing here. On the other hand, if there is a lot of notation replacing "$X$" this is not so good: $$\mathbf 1_{n_k\in \{n: n\text{ prime}\}}.$$