The concavity of $(\det A)^{1/n}$ for a positive definite symmetric matrix $A$, as well as its generalization known as the Brunn-Minkowski inequality, are absolutely fundamental and critical to differential and integral geometry, as well as geometric analysis (here, I mean functional inequalities like the Sobolev and Poincare inequalities). It is used, for example, in the proof of isoperimetric inequalities and something known as the Bishop-Gromov inequality on a Riemannian manifold.
The first proof I learned is simply differentiating $(\det A(t))^{1/n}$ twice, where $A(t) = A_0 + A_1t$.