According to Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bohr–Mollerup_theorem, the Bohr-Mollerup Theorem (discussed previously on MO here: http://mathoverflow.net/questions/23229/importance-of-log-convexity-of-the-gamma-function) was first published in a textbook. It says the authors did that instead of writing a paper because they didn't think the theorem was new.
What other examples are there of significant theorems that first saw the light of day in a textbook? (I'm assuming Wikipedia is right about Bohr-Mollerup.)
I recognize that the word "significant" is imprecise; I have in mind theorems that mathematicians have picked up on and used in their own work, but I'm open to other interpretations.