In particular, I observe that the quadratic-in-$p$ contributions to last terms in each of $p_k$ that appear for $N < k \leq 2N$N=8$have a very simple the form p_{k}=\sum_{k-N\leq j < k/2} k\ \frac{k}{j(k-j)}\ p_{k-j}p_j + A_k +{\cal O} (p^3),prod_j \frac{1}{j^{r_j}r_j!}p_j^{r_j},which means thata_{k,\rho}=k\prod_j \frac{1}{j^{r_j}r_j!}.This formula (whose structure resembles the coefficients in the expansion of Schur functions quoted by Peter Erskin) also works for partitions all terms of the type $$\rho=(1^0,...,(j-1)^0,j^1,(j+1)^0,...,(k-j-1)^0,(k-j)^1,(k-j+1)^0,...,N^0)which contain only two parts (with the lengths p_jp_{k-j} at arbitrary j\neq k-jN. Apparently, respectively).The "diagonal" term A_k this is zero for odd k, whereasnot a general formula, as can be seen from the coefficients in frontof$$A_k=\frac{2}{k}\ p_{k/2}^2$$for even p_1^k which do depend on k.I believe, however, that the coefficients in front of higher-order terms have a similar simple structuregeneral formula for a_{k,\rho} with N properly included should not be much more complex than the empirical one above. 2 typo corrected Combining the trace formula proposed by Gjergji Zaimi and Qiaochu Yuan,$$ p_k={\rm Tr}\begin{pmatrix} e_1 & 1 & \cdots & 0 \\ -e_2 & 0 & \ddots & \vdots \\ \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & 1 \\ (-1)^{N-1}e_N & 0 & \cdots & 0 \end{pmatrix}^{k}, $$with the formula quoted by Peter Erskin,$$ e_n=\frac1{n!} \begin{vmatrix}p_1 & 1 & 0 & \cdots\\ p_2 & p_1 & 2 & 0 & \cdots \\ \vdots&& \ddots & \ddots \\ p_{n-1} & p_{n-2} & \cdots & p_1 & n-1 \\ p_n & p_{n-1} & \cdots & p_2 & p_1 \end{vmatrix}, $$Mathematica produces the following expansions of p_k:$$N=2 p_3=-\frac{1}{2}\ p_1^3+\frac{3}{2}\ p_1p_2  p_4=-\frac{1}{2}\ p_1^4+p_1^2p_2+\frac{1}{2}\ p_2^2  p_5=-\frac{1}{4}\ p_1^5+\frac{5}{4}\ p_1p_2 ^2  p_6=-\frac{3}{4}\ p_1^4p_2+\frac{3}{2}\ p_1^2p_2^2+\frac{1}{4}\ p_2^3  p_7=\frac{1}{8}\ p_1^7-\frac{7}{8}\ p_1^5p_2+\frac{7}{8}\ p_1^3p_2^2+\frac{7}{8}\ p_1p_2^3  p_8=\frac{1}{8}\ p_1^8-\frac{1}{2}\ p_1^6p_2-\frac{1}{4}\ p_1^4p_2^2+\frac{3}{2}\ p_1^2p_2^3+\frac{1}{8}\ p_2^4  p_9=\frac{1}{16}\ p_1^9-\frac{9}{8}\ p_1^5p_2^2+\frac{3}{2}\ p_1^3p_2^3 +\frac{9}{16}\ p_1p_2^4  p_{10}=\frac{5}{16}\ p_1^8p_2-\frac{5}{4}\ p_1^6p_2^2+\frac{5}{8}\ p_1^4p_2^3 +\frac{5}{4}\ p_1^2p_2^4+\frac{1}{16}\ p_2^5  p_{11}=-\frac{1}{32}\ p_1^{11}+\frac{11}{32}\ p_1^9p_2-\frac{11}{16}\ p_1^7p_2^2-\frac{11}{16}\ p_1^5p_2^3 +\frac{55}{32}\ p_1^3p_2^4+\frac{11}{32}\ p_1p_2^5 N=3 p_4=\frac{1}{6}\ p_1^4-p_1^2p_2+\frac{1}{2}\ p_2^2+ \frac{4}{3}\ p_1p_3  p_5=\frac{1}{6}\ p_1^5-\frac{5}{6}\ p_1^3p_2+\frac{5}{6}\ p_1^2p_3+\frac{5}{6}\ p_2p_3  p_6=\frac{1}{12}\ p_1^6-\frac{1}{4}\ p_1^4p_2-\frac{3}{4}\ p_1^2p_2^2+\frac{1}{4}\ p_2^3+\frac{1}{3}\ p_1^3p_2^3+p_1 p_2 p_3 +\frac{1}{3}\ p_3^2  p_7=\frac{1}{36}\ p_1^7-\frac{7}{12}\ p_1^3p_2^2+\frac{7}{36}\ p_1^4p_3+\frac{7}{12}\ p_2^2p_3+\frac{7}{9}\ p_1p_3^2  p_8=\frac{1}{72}\ p_1^8-\frac{1}{18}\ p_1^6p_2+\frac{1}{12}\ p_1^4p_2^2-\frac{1}{2}\ p_1^2p_2^3+\frac{1}{8}\ p_2^4+\frac{2}{9}\ p_1^5p_3  -\frac{8}{9}\ p_1^3p_2p_3+\frac{2}{3}\ p_1p_2^2p_3+\frac{8}{9}\ p_1^2p_3^2+\frac{4}{9}\ p_2p_3^2 N=4 p_5=-\frac{1}{24}\ p_1^5+\frac{5}{12}\ p_1^3p_2-\frac{5}{8}\ p_1p_2^2-\frac{5}{6}\ p_1^2p_3+\frac{5}{6}\ p_2p_3+\frac{5}{4}\ p_1p_4  p_6=-\frac{1}{24}\ p_1^6+\frac{3}{8}\ p_1^4p_2-\frac{3}{8}\ p_1^2p_2^2-\frac{1}{8}\ p_2^3-\frac{2}{3}\ p_1^3p_3+\frac{1}{3}\ p_3^2+\frac{3}{4}\ p_1^2p_4+\frac{3}{4}\ p_2p_4  p_7=-\frac{1}{48}\ p_1^7+\frac{7}{48}\ p_1^5p_2+\frac{7}{48}\ p_1^3p_2^2-\frac{7}{16}\ p_1p_2^2-\frac{7}{24}\ p_1^4p_3-\frac{7}{12}\ p_1^2p_2p_3 +\frac{7}{24}\ p_2^2p_3 +\frac{7}{24}\ p_1^3p_4+\frac{7}{8}\ p_1p_2p_4+\frac{7}{12}\ p_3p_4  p_8=-\frac{1}{144}\ p_1^8+\frac{1}{36}\ p_1^6p_2+\frac{5}{24}\ p_1^4p_2^2 -\frac{1}{4}\ p_1^2p_2^2-\frac{1}{16}\ p_2^4  -\frac{1}{9}\ p_1^5p_3-\frac{2}{9}\ p_1^3p_2p_3 -\frac{1}{3}\ p_1p_2^2p_3-\frac{4}{9}\ p_1^2p_3^2+\frac{4}{9}\ p_2p_3^2  +\frac{1}{12}\ p_1^4p_4+\frac{1}{2}\ p_1^2p_2p_4+\frac{1}{4}\ p_2^2p_4 +\frac{2}{3}\ p_1p_3p_4+\frac{1}{4}\ p_4^2. $$It seems to me that a nice and compact formula for a_{k,\rho} does exist. Indeed, the coefficients in the above examples are extremely simple. In particular, I observe that the quadratic-in-p contributions to p_k that appear for N < k \leq 2N have a very simple form:$$ p_{k}=\sum_{k-N\leq j < k/2} \ \frac{k}{j(k-j)}\ p_{k-j}p_j + A_k +{\cal O} (p^3), $$which means that$$ a_{k,\rho}=\frac{k}{j(k-j)} $$for partitions of the type$$ \rho=(1^0,...,(j-1)^0,j^1,(j+1)^0,...,(k-j-1)^0,(k-j)^1,(k-j+1)^0,...,N^0) $$which contain only two parts (with the lengths j\neq k-j, respectively). The "diagonal" term A_k is zero for odd k, whereas$$A_k=\frac{1}{k}\$A_k=\frac{2}{k}\ p_{k/2}^2$$for even k. I believe that the coefficients in front of higher-order terms have a similar simple structure. Hope this helps. 1 Combining the trace formula proposed by Gjergji Zaimi and Qiaochu Yuan,$$ p_k={\rm Tr}\begin{pmatrix} e_1 & 1 & \cdots & 0 \\ -e_2 & 0 & \ddots & \vdots \\ \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & 1 \\ (-1)^{N-1}e_N & 0 & \cdots & 0 \end{pmatrix}^{k}, $$with the formula quoted by Peter Erskin,$$ e_n=\frac1{n!} \begin{vmatrix}p_1 & 1 & 0 & \cdots\\ p_2 & p_1 & 2 & 0 & \cdots \\ \vdots&& \ddots & \ddots \\ p_{n-1} & p_{n-2} & \cdots & p_1 & n-1 \\ p_n & p_{n-1} & \cdots & p_2 & p_1 \end{vmatrix}, $$Mathematica produces the following expansions of p_k:$$N=2 p_3=-\frac{1}{2}\ p_1^3+\frac{3}{2}\ p_1p_2  p_4=-\frac{1}{2}\ p_1^4+p_1^2p_2+\frac{1}{2}\ p_2^2  p_5=-\frac{1}{4}\ p_1^5+\frac{5}{4}\ p_1p_2 ^2  p_6=-\frac{3}{4}\ p_1^4p_2+\frac{3}{2}\ p_1^2p_2^2+\frac{1}{4}\ p_2^3  p_7=\frac{1}{8}\ p_1^7-\frac{7}{8}\ p_1^5p_2+\frac{7}{8}\ p_1^3p_2^2+\frac{7}{8}\ p_1p_2^3  p_8=\frac{1}{8}\ p_1^8-\frac{1}{2}\ p_1^6p_2-\frac{1}{4}\ p_1^4p_2^2+\frac{3}{2}\ p_1^2p_2^3+\frac{1}{8}\ p_2^4  p_9=\frac{1}{16}\ p_1^9-\frac{9}{8}\ p_1^5p_2^2+\frac{3}{2}\ p_1^3p_2^3 +\frac{9}{16}\ p_1p_2^4  p_{10}=\frac{5}{16}\ p_1^8p_2-\frac{5}{4}\ p_1^6p_2^2+\frac{5}{8}\ p_1^4p_2^3 +\frac{5}{4}\ p_1^2p_2^4+\frac{1}{16}\ p_2^5  p_{11}=-\frac{1}{32}\ p_1^{11}+\frac{11}{32}\ p_1^9p_2-\frac{11}{16}\ p_1^7p_2^2-\frac{11}{16}\ p_1^5p_2^3 +\frac{55}{32}\ p_1^3p_2^4+\frac{11}{32}\ p_1p_2^5 N=3 p_4=\frac{1}{6}\ p_1^4-p_1^2p_2+\frac{1}{2}\ p_2^2+ \frac{4}{3}\ p_1p_3  p_5=\frac{1}{6}\ p_1^5-\frac{5}{6}\ p_1^3p_2+\frac{5}{6}\ p_1^2p_3+\frac{5}{6}\ p_2p_3  p_6=\frac{1}{12}\ p_1^6-\frac{1}{4}\ p_1^4p_2-\frac{3}{4}\ p_1^2p_2^2+\frac{1}{4}\ p_2^3+\frac{1}{3}\ p_1^3p_2^3+p_1 p_2 p_3 +\frac{1}{3}\ p_3^2  p_7=\frac{1}{36}\ p_1^7-\frac{7}{12}\ p_1^3p_2^2+\frac{7}{36}\ p_1^4p_3+\frac{7}{12}\ p_2^2p_3+\frac{7}{9}\ p_1p_3^2  p_8=\frac{1}{72}\ p_1^8-\frac{1}{18}\ p_1^6p_2+\frac{1}{12}\ p_1^4p_2^2-\frac{1}{2}\ p_1^2p_2^3+\frac{1}{8}\ p_2^4+\frac{2}{9}\ p_1^5p_3  -\frac{8}{9}\ p_1^3p_2p_3+\frac{2}{3}\ p_1p_2^2p_3+\frac{8}{9}\ p_1^2p_3^2+\frac{4}{9}\ p_2p_3^2 N=4 p_5=-\frac{1}{24}\ p_1^5+\frac{5}{12}\ p_1^3p_2-\frac{5}{8}\ p_1p_2^2-\frac{5}{6}\ p_1^2p_3+\frac{5}{6}\ p_2p_3+\frac{5}{4}\ p_1p_4  p_6=-\frac{1}{24}\ p_1^6+\frac{3}{8}\ p_1^4p_2-\frac{3}{8}\ p_1^2p_2^2-\frac{1}{8}\ p_2^3-\frac{2}{3}\ p_1^3p_3+\frac{1}{3}\ p_3^2+\frac{3}{4}\ p_1^2p_4+\frac{3}{4}\ p_2p_4  p_7=-\frac{1}{48}\ p_1^7+\frac{7}{48}\ p_1^5p_2+\frac{7}{48}\ p_1^3p_2^2-\frac{7}{16}\ p_1p_2^2-\frac{7}{24}\ p_1^4p_3-\frac{7}{12}\ p_1^2p_2p_3 +\frac{7}{24}\ p_2^2p_3 +\frac{7}{24}\ p_1^3p_4+\frac{7}{8}\ p_1p_2p_4+\frac{7}{12}\ p_3p_4  p_8=-\frac{1}{144}\ p_1^8+\frac{1}{36}\ p_1^6p_2+\frac{5}{24}\ p_1^4p_2^2 -\frac{1}{4}\ p_1^2p_2^2-\frac{1}{16}\ p_2^4  -\frac{1}{9}\ p_1^5p_3-\frac{2}{9}\ p_1^3p_2p_3 -\frac{1}{3}\ p_1p_2^2p_3-\frac{4}{9}\ p_1^2p_3^2+\frac{4}{9}\ p_2p_3^2  +\frac{1}{12}\ p_1^4p_4+\frac{1}{2}\ p_1^2p_2p_4+\frac{1}{4}\ p_2^2p_4 +\frac{2}{3}\ p_1p_3p_4+\frac{1}{4}\ p_4^2. $$It seems to me that a nice and compact formula for a_{k,\rho} does exist. Indeed, the coefficients in the above examples are extremely simple. In particular, I observe that the quadratic-in-p contributions to p_k that appear for  N < k \leq 2N  have a very simple form:$$ p_{k}=\sum_{k-N\leq j < k/2} \ \frac{k}{j(k-j)}\ p_{k-j}p_j + A_k +{\cal O} (p^3), $$which means that$$ a_{k,\rho}=\frac{k}{j(k-j)} $$for partitions of the type$$ \rho=(1^0,...,(j-1)^0,j^1,(j+1)^0,...,(k-j-1)^0,(k-j)^1,(k-j+1)^0,...,N^0) $$which contain only two parts (with the lengths j\neq k-j, respectively). The "diagonal" term A_k is zero for odd k, whereas$$A_k=\frac{1}{k}\ p_{k/2}^2 for even $k$. I believe that the coefficients in front of higher-order terms have a similar simple structure.