If you are looking for a break from Calculus and don't want to dive into Category Theory right away, my favorite book is Alan Beardon's Algebra and Geometry. What follows is an enhanced Amazon review I wrote as an undergrad. The Cambridge Schedules provide a wonderful guide to further study so do have a look.
Beardon's book has become a bible of sorts to first-year students studying mathematics at Cambridge University (please refer to the Schedules for a beautiful play-by-play of topics and books by perhaps the best foundational math curriculum the world-over). Its quality as a text cannot be doubted, although its usefulness for further years of algebra is limited. This is precisely the book to study from if you are doing vector calculus and differential equations, but still aren't sure about doing mathematics seriously. If you have not taken a course in linear algebra or abstract algebra, buy the paperback copy (~$50) of this book and start reading right away. Beardon starts with (what I believe is the best way) the study of permutations (think about shuffling a deck of cards) to develop an intuition of the basic notions of a group. From here the fundamentals for further study in mathematics is laid. I won't repeat the table of contents here, as you can look for yourself, but believe me when I say that mastering the concepts in this book will serve you very well.
I truly wish I had a course which devoted itself to the complete digestion of this book. I used it for self-study and found that it served me very well. It does not fall easily into the structure of most American math sequences, as these departments are often forced to "modularize" mathematics into semester-bite-sized pieces. I believe that this often has a negative impact on the appreciation of mathematics as a whole, especially at the nexus between doing basic calculus and appreciating proof, rigor and beauty in mathematical structures.
The book may not go into the same depth as, say, Artin's "Algebra", but rather the foundational concepts for the study of algebra and geometry are emphasized in a variety of settings. This is very important as the study of "abstract algebra" is precisely that if you do not have a wide-selection of examples and contexts to draw from. This book has plenty of exercises of varying difficulty, and everything in this book is accessible to the beginning student of mathematics.
Bottom line: If you are someone interested in learning linear algebra, geometry, group theory, Mobius transformations, complex variables all in a rigorous yet introductory level, this is the book for you. Developing a robust mental model for mathematics requires building several thin layers at a time. This means not going too deep too quickly, but rather snorkeling around the entire reef, before you gear up for further exploration.