Some of the prettiest examples of Dedekind's structuralism arise from revisiting proofs in elementary number theory from a highbrow viewpoint, e.g. by reformulating them after noticing hidden structure (ideals, modules, etc). A striking example of such is the generalization and unification of elementary irrationality proofs of n'th roots by way of Dedekind's notion of conductor ideal. This gem seems to be little-known (even to some number theorists, e.g. Estermann and Niven). Since I've already explained this at length elsewhere I'll simply link  to it.
At first glance the various "elementary" proofs seem to be magically pulled out of a hat since the crucial structure of the conductor ideal is obfuscated by the descent "calculations" of various lemmas (that have all been inlined vs. abstracted out). However, once one abstracts out the hidden innate structure the proof becomes a striking one-liner: simply remark that in a PID a conductor ideal is principal so cancelable, thus PIDs are integrally closed. Here, the complexity of the calculations verifying the descent (induction) etc are abstracted out and tidily encapsulated once-and-for-all in the lemma that Euclidean domains are PIDs. Following Dedekind's ground-breaking insight, we recognize in many number-theoretical contexts the innate structure of an ideal, and we exploit that structure whenever possible. For much further detail and discussion see all of my posts in the thread 1 (click on the thread's title/subject at the top of the frame to see a threaded view in the Google Groups usenet web interface)
When I teach such topics I emphasize that one should always look for "hidden ideals" and other obfuscated innate structure. Alas, too many students cannot resist the urge to dive in and "calculate" before pursuing conceptual investigations. It was such methodological principles that led Dedekind to discover most all of the fundamental algebraic structures. Nowadays we often take for granted such structural abstractions and methodology. But it was certainly a nontrivial task to discover these in the rarefied mathematical atmosphere of Dedekind's day (and it remains so even nowadays for students when first learning such topics). Emmy Noether wasn't joking when she said "it's all already in Dedekind". It deserves emphasis that this remark also remains true for methodological principles.
1 sci.math, 20 May 2009, Irrationality of sqrt (n^2 - 1)