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What are some number theoretic sequences that you know of that occur as (or are closely related to) the sequence of Fourier coefficients of some sort of automorphic function/form or the sequence of Hecke eigenvalues attached to a Hecke eigenform?

I know many such sequences, but am always looking for more.

Some examples

(1) The sequence a(n) deriving from the traces a(p) of the Frobenius elements in a Galois representation (Langlands reciprocity conjecture)

(2) Number of representations of a natural number as a sum of k squares (theta functions)

(3) The sum of powers of divisor functions (Eisenstein series)

(4) The central critical values of L-functions attached to all quadratic twists of a Hecke eigenform (Kohnen, Waldspurger)

(5) Intersection numbers of certain subvarieties of Hilbert modular surfaces (Hirzebruch-Zagier)

I'll end with a question that is ill-posed but nevertheless very interesting (at least to me personally): why do so many familiar and yet diverse sequences appear in this fashion? Note that many of them have a history of study that precedes the recognition that they are essentially coefficients of automorphic functions/forms?.

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# Number theoretic sequences and Hecke eigenvalues

What are some number theoretic sequences that you know of that occur as (or are closely related to) the sequence of Fourier coefficients of some sort of automorphic function/form or the sequence of Hecke eigenvalues attached to a Hecke eigenform?

I know many such sequences, but am always looking for more.

Some examples

(1) The sequence a(n) deriving from the traces a(p) of the Frobenius elements in a Galois representation (Langlands reciprocity conjecture)

(2) Number of representations of a natural number as a sum of k squares (theta functions)

(3) The sum of powers of divisor functions (Eisenstein series)

(4) The central critical values of L-functions attached to all quadratic twists of a Hecke eigenform (Kohnen, Waldspurger)

(5) Intersection numbers of certain subvarieties of Hilbert modular surfaces (Hirzebruch-Zagier)

I'll end with a question that is ill-posed but nevertheless very interesting (at least to me personally): why do so many familiar and yet diverse sequences appear in this fashion? Note that many of them have a history of study that precedes the recognition that they are essentially coefficients of automorphic functions/forms?