Since no one has mentioned A.N. Kolmogorov (born 1903), I hope I may be forgiven for a second answer. The following is from Kolmogorov's Wikipedia biography.
In classical mechanics, he is best known for the Kolmogorov–Arnold–Moser theorem (first presented in 1954 at the International Congress of Mathematicians). In 1957 he solved Hilbert's thirteenth problem (a joint work with his student V. I. Arnold). He was a founder of algorithmic complexity theory, often referred to as Kolmogorov complexity theory, which he began to develop around this time.