Here is a linearly independent subset of $\mathbb{R}$ with size $2^{\aleph_0}$.

Let $q_0, q_1, \ldots$ be an enumeration of $\mathbb{Q}$. For every real number $r$, let $$T_r = \sum_{q_n < r} \frac{1}{n!}$$ The proof that these numbers are linearly independent is similar to the usual proof that $e$ is irrational. (It's a cute problem; there's spoiler below.)

I think a similar trick might work for algebraic independence, but I don't recall having seen such a construction. Actually, John von Neumann showed that the numbers $$A_r = \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{2^{2^{[nr]}}}{2^{2^{n^2}}}$$ are algebraically independent for $r > 0$. [Ein System algebraisch unabhängiger Zahlen, Math. Ann. 99, 1928] A more general result due to Jan Mycielski seems to go through in ZF + DC perhaps just ZF in some cases. [Independent sets in topological algebras, Fund. Math. 55, 1964]

As for subspaces and subfields isomorphic to $\mathbb{R}$, the answer is no. (Since I'm not allowed to post any logic here, I'll refer you to this answer and let you figure it out.)

Well, I'll bend the rules a little... Consider a $\mathbb{Q}$-linear isomorphism $h:\mathbb{R}\to H$, where $H$ is a $\mathbb{Q}$-linear subspace of $\mathbb{R}$ (i.e. $h$ is an additive group isomorphism onto the divisible subgroup $H$ of $\mathbb{R}$). If $h$ Baire measurable then it must be continuous by an ancient theorem of Banach and Pettis. It follows that $h(x) = xh(1)$ for all $x \in \mathbb{R}$ and therefore $H = \mathbb{R}$. Shelah has produced a model of ZF + DC where all sets of reals have the Baire property, so any such $h$ in this model must be Baire measurable. A similar argument works if Baire measurable is replaced by Lebesgue measurable, but Solovay's model of ZF + DC where all sets of reals are Lebesgue measurable uses the existence of an inaccessible cardinal, and this hypothesis was shown necessary by Shelah.

Spoiler

Suppose for the sake of contradiction that $r_1 > r_2 > \cdots > r_k$ and $a_1,a_2,\ldots,a_k \in \mathbb{Z}$ are such that $a_1T_{r_1} + a_2T_{r_2} + \cdots + a_kT_{r_k} = 0$. Choose a very large $n$ such that $r_1 > q_n > r_2$. If $n$ is large enough that $$(|a_1| + |a_2| + \cdots + |a_k|) \sum_{m=n+1}^\infty \frac{n!}{m!} < 1$$ then the tail terms of $n!(a_1T_{r_1}+\cdots+a_kT_{r_k}) = 0$ must cancel out, and we're left with $$a_1 = -\sum_{m=0}^{n-1} \sum_{q_m < r_i} a_i \frac{n!}{m!} \equiv 0 \pmod{n}$$ If moreover $n > |a_1|$, this means that $a_1 = 0$. Repeat to conclude that $a_1 = a_2 = \cdots a_k = 0$.

Here is a linearly independent subset of $\mathbb{R}$ with size $2^{\aleph_0}$.

Let $q_0, q_1, \ldots$ be an enumeration of $\mathbb{Q}$. For every real number $r$, let $$T_r = \sum_{q_n < r} \frac{1}{n!}$$ The proof that these numbers are linearly independent is similar to the usual proof that $e$ is irrational. (It's a cute problem, but I'll post a ; there's spoiler if somebody asks.below.)

I think a similar trick might work for algebraic independence, but I don't recall having seen such a construction.

As for subspaces and subfields isomorphic to $\mathbb{R}$, the answer is no. (Since I'm not allowed to post any logic here, I'll refer you to this answer and let you figure it out.)

Well, I'll bend the rules a little... Consider a $\mathbb{Q}$-linear isomorphism $h:\mathbb{R}\to H$, where $H$ is a $\mathbb{Q}$-linear subspace of $\mathbb{R}$ (i.e. $h$ is an additive group isomorphism onto the divisible subgroup $H$ of $\mathbb{R}$). If $h$ Baire measurable then it must be continuous by an ancient theorem of Banach and Pettis. It follows that $h(x) = xh(1)$ for all $x \in \mathbb{R}$ and therefore $H = \mathbb{R}$. Shelah has produced a model of ZF + DC where all sets of reals have the Baire property, so any such $h$ in this model must be Baire measurable. A similar argument works if Baire measurable is replaced by Lebesgue measurable, but Solovay's model of ZF + DC where all sets of reals are Lebesgue measurable uses the existence of an inaccessible cardinal, and this hypothesis was shown necessary by Shelah.

Spoiler

Suppose for the sake of contradiction that $r_1 > r_2 > \cdots > r_k$ and $a_1,a_2,\ldots,a_k \in \mathbb{Z}$ are such that $a_1T_{r_1} + a_2T_{r_2} + \cdots + a_kT_{r_k} = 0$. Choose a very large $n$ such that $r_1 > q_n > r_2$. If $n$ is large enough that $$(|a_1| + |a_2| + \cdots + |a_k|) \sum_{m=n+1}^\infty \frac{n!}{m!} < 1$$ then the tail terms of $n!(a_1T_{r_1}+\cdots+a_kT_{r_k}) = 0$ must cancel out, and we're left with $$a_1 = -\sum_{m=0}^{n-1} \sum_{q_m < r_i} a_i \frac{n!}{m!} \equiv 0 \pmod{n}$$ If moreover $n > |a_1|$, this means that $a_1 = 0$. Repeat to conclude that $a_1 = a_2 = \cdots a_k = 0$.

3 clarifications

Here is a linearly independent subset of $\mathbb{R}$ with size $2^{\aleph_0}$.

Let $q_0, q_1, \ldots$ be an enumeration of $\mathbb{Q}$. For every real number $r$, let $$T_r = \sum_{q_n < r} \frac{1}{n!}$$ The proof that these numbers are linearly independent is similar to the usual proof that $e$ is irrational. (It's a cute problem, but I'll post a spoiler if somebody asks.)

I think a similar trick might work for algebraic independence, but I don't recall having seen such a construction.

As for subspaces and subfields isomorphic to $\mathbb{R}$, the answer is no. (Since I'm not allowed to post any logic here, I'll refer you to this answer and let you figure it out.)

Well, I'll play nice..bend the rules a little... Consider an a $\mathbb{Q}$-linear isomorphism $h:\mathbb{R}\to H$, where $H$ is a $\mathbb{Q}$-subspace \mathbb{Q}$-linear subspace of$\mathbb{R}$. \mathbb{R}$ (i.e. $h$ is an additive group isomorphism onto the divisible subgroup $H$ of $\mathbb{R}$). If $h$ Baire measurable , then it must be continuous by an ancient theorem of Banach and Pettis, . It follows that $h(x) = xh(1)$ for all $x \in \mathbb{R}$ and therefore $H = \mathbb{R}$. Shelah has produced a model of ZF + DC where all sets of reals have the Baire property, so any such $h$ in this model must be Baire measurable. A similar argument works if Baire measurable is replaced by Lebesgue measurable, but Solovay's model of ZF + DC where all sets of reals are Lebesgue measurable uses the existence of an inaccessible cardinal, and this hypothesis was shown necessary by Shelah.